Turkish flag

Le labyrinthe syrien de la Turquie

MADRID – En cette fin d’année 2015, de nouvelles mesures – si timides soient-elles – ont été prises dans le but de mettre un terme à la guerre en Syrie. Le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies a adopté la résolution 2254, donnant son aval à une feuille de route pour la paix et le Groupe international de soutien à la Syrie (GISS) ont fixé la date de la prochaine assemblée, qui se tiendra le mois prochain. Le GISS rassemble toutefois des alliés comme des adversaires – par exemple, l’Arabie saoudite et l’Iran – ce qui laisse croire qu’il sera difficile de faire avancer les choses au sein de cet organisme.

Maintenant, deux autres pays impliqués dans le processus, la Turquie et la Russie semblent s’être engagés sur la voie de la discorde. La Turquie, dont la proximité à la Syrie présente des difficultés comme des enjeux, pourrait jouer un rôle particulièrement important pour orienter la façon dont se déroule le processus de paix. Mais lorsque la Turquie a abattu un bombardier russe au-dessus de sa frontière avec la Syrie le mois dernier, les relations entre les deux pays se sont brutalement détériorées, le Kremlin n’a d’ailleurs pas tardé à imposer des sanctions économiques en guise de représailles.

La Russie, pour sa part, est confrontée à la dure réalité de maintenir une présence militaire active au Proche-Orient. Ses efforts pour soutenir le régime du président Bashar el-Assad (et ainsi renforcer son propre rôle à la table de négociation) le place en porte à faux avec les pays – dont la Turquie qui est membre de l’OTAN – qui veulent qu’Assad soit démis de ses fonctions.

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