Recep Tayyip Erdogan speech referendum Elif Sogut/Getty Images

¿Victoria pírrica de Erdoğan?

ESTAMBUL – El domingo de Pascua, los votantes turcos, convocados a un referendo en relación con 18 enmiendas constitucionales ya aprobadas por la Asamblea Nacional, tenían ante sí una disyuntiva clara. Votar por “sí” suponía cambiar el sistema político del país y dar inicio a una nueva era en la historia turca. Más de un siglo de parlamentarismo quedaría atrás, para dar lugar a un sistema presidencial “a la turca” hecho a medida del actual gobernante, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

Turquía tiene considerable experiencia en redactar constituciones, y la mayoría de los juristas consideran que estas enmiendas, que los votantes aprobaron por muy estrecho margen, son un retroceso en el mejor de los casos. Los autores del proyecto parecen haber olvidado 150 años de historia turca, por no hablar de las enseñanzas más elementales de la democracia liberal.

A partir de 2019, tras la elección parlamentaria y presidencial de ese año, el sistema político turco quedará sin el cargo de primer ministro, y el poder ejecutivo se concentrará en manos de un presidente que también es el líder de un partido político. La Asamblea Nacional (institución fundacional de la República Turca) perderá muchos de sus poderes, y su capacidad de hacer de contrapeso al presidente quedará seriamente limitada, ya que este podrá disolverla en cualquier momento.

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