Recep Tayyip Erdogan speech referendum Elif Sogut/Getty Images

Пиррова победа Эрдогана?

СТАМБУЛ – Когда в пасхальное воскресенье турецкие избиратели заполняли бюллетени референдума по вопросу о 18 конституционных поправках, одобренных ранее Национальным собранием, им надо было сделать радикальный выбор. Сказав «да», они могли изменить политическую систему страны и начать новую эру турецкой истории. Режим парламентаризма, существовавший более века, мог смениться президентской системой «а-ля тюрк», специально настроенной под нынешнего президента Реджепа Тайипа Эрдогана.

У Турции имеется значительный опыт в составлении конституций, и большинство экспертов-юристов оценили поправки как, мягко говоря, регрессивные; тем не менее, минимальным большинством они были одобрены избирателями. Авторы этих поправок, по всей видимости, проигнорировали 150 лет турецкой истории, не говоря уже о фундаментальных уроках либеральной демократии.

Политическая система, которая вступит в силу после парламентских и президентских выборов, намеченных на 2019 год, предусматривает ликвидацию поста премьер-министра и концентрацию исполнительной власти в руках президента, одновременно руководящего политической партией. Национальное собрание – институт, который помог основать Турецкую республику, – лишится многих полномочий, а его способность действовать в качестве противовеса президенту будет серьёзно ограничена, поскольку президент сможет распустить его в любой момент.

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