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Le déficit de la Turquie en matière de liberté

DURHAM – Le Parti de la justice et du développement (AKP) est arrivé au pouvoir en 2002 en promettant la liberté religieuse aux musulmans pratiquants. Quatorze ans plus tard, la « liberté » est un concept lointain.

Aujourd’hui, même les partisans de l’AKP doivent soigneusement peser leurs mots, de peur d’être considérés comme des détracteurs du gouvernement ou des alliés de ses ennemis. Cet impératif est plus marqué encore depuis l’échec du coup d’État contre le gouvernement du président Recep Tayyip Erdogan le 15 juillet dernier. Effacer toute preuve d’une association avec les ennemis de l’AKP – et en particulier de toute affiliation avec Fethullah Gülen, le prédicateur reclus résidant en Pennsylvanie, que le gouvernement turc accuse d’avoir fomenté le putsch – relève à présent de l’instinct de survie.

Le gouvernement Erdogan n’est de loin pas le premier à obliger les citoyens turcs à dissimuler leurs croyances et préférences. Sous les gouvernements laïcs qui ont dirigé la Turquie des années 1920 aux années 1950, et dans une certaine mesure jusqu’en 2002, les Turcs croyants qui souhaitaient un avancement professionnel au sein de la bureaucratie et de l’armée et même dans les entreprises devaient minimiser leur religiosité et éviter de montrer leur adhésion à l’islam politique.

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