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El arma secreta de la democracia turca

OXFORD – El reciente golpe fallido en Turquía puso de manifiesto que el país sigue siendo vulnerable a intentos de toma del poder por la vía militar. Pero también reveló el surgimiento de un recurso muy potente, que los vecinos de Turquía deberían tratar de cultivar: una clase media fuerte con voluntad y capacidad de movilizarse contra amenazas extremistas. Queda por ver ahora, en el caso de Turquía, si el presidente Recep Tayyip Erdoğan lo cultivará. En el caso de Medio Oriente en general, la cuestión es cómo crear una clase media capaz de salvaguardar la estabilidad.

La salida a las calles de multitudes de ciudadanos a mitad de la noche, decididos a hacer retroceder a los golpistas, fue una muestra elocuente del poder de la acción colectiva, de un tipo que debería concitar la atención de cualquier líder político, particularmente aquellos que buscan el desarrollo de sus países. El análisis del golpe, en general, se concentró en las rivalidades dentro de la élite turca y en los fallos de Erdoğan (sin duda abundantes). Pero poco se dijo de los cambios estructurales en la política económica turca, que empoderaron a la clase media del país, base electoral del partido Justicia y Desarrollo (AKP) de Erdoğan.

Durante las dos últimas décadas, Turquía hizo notables avances económicos, pasando de ser el enfermo de Europa a convertirse en una de las economías más dinámicas de la región y nuevo centro de gravedad del comercio de Medio Oriente. Un elemento crucial de esta transformación fue la inversión en infraestructura, el apoyo a las pymes, la expansión del comercio regional y el desarrollo del sector turístico.

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