Istanbul MacPepper/Flickr

L'ouverture de l'UE à la Turquie

MADRID ‒ Les élections législatives turques du mois de juin ont fait passer un message fort : la démocratie turque reste intacte. En effet, alors qu'il y avait quelques réclamations au sujet de la transparence au cours de la campagne, la démocratie a régné, avec un surprenant taux de participation de 86% : un taux rarement vu en Europe. Le reste du monde, l'Union européenne en particulier, peut en prendre bonne note.

Par leur vote, les citoyens de la Turquie ont refusé au Parti de la Justice et du Développement (AKP) en place, la majorité absolue qui lui était nécessaire pour modifier la Constitution. En outre, en donnant au Parti populaire démocratique (HDP) plus de 10% des voix, cela a permis au parti de faire entrer pour la première fois au Parlement la minorité kurde marginalisée depuis longtemps et d'autres groupes du pays, avec une représentation dans l'ensemble du pays et non plus seulement dans les zones à majorité kurde. Pour renforcer ce triomphe du pluralisme, les groupes minoritaires alévis et chrétiens ont remporté la plus grande représentation parlementaire et les Yézidis et les Roms seront représentés pour la première fois.

La nouvelle configuration parlementaire risque d'avoir un impact important sur la politique étrangère de la Turquie, qui a fait face à de sérieux défis ces dernières années. En effet, alors que les conflits régionaux se sont intensifiés, l'objectif principal de politique étrangère du pays d'assurer « zéro problème » avec ses voisins est devenu inaccessible. Et les politiques menées par la Turquie, notamment en Syrie et en Égypte, n'ont satisfait ni les pays à majorité sunnite de la région, ni l'Occident.

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