Adem Altan/AFP/Getty Images

Turquía anclada a un referéndum

MADRID – Mientras la UE trata de capear el temporal nacionalista que amenaza con erosionar sus instituciones, algunos de sus más importantes aliados estratégicos están contribuyendo a la incertidumbre que reina en el ambiente. Claro ejemplo de ello es Turquía, que es candidata oficial a adherirse a la UE desde 1999 e ingresó en la OTAN en 1952. Sobre el papel, Turquía reúne unas condiciones ideales para tender puentes entre Europa y Oriente Próximo, pero su reciente deriva—incluyendo las acusaciones del Presidente Recep Tayyip Erdoğan a las instituciones alemanas y neerlandesas de incurrir en prácticas nazis—resulta muy alarmante.

Desde el reprobable intento de golpe de Estado de julio del pasado año, Erdoğan ha emprendido una ofensiva con el propósito de afianzar su poder. Haciendo valer su renovada popularidad y amparado por el estado de emergencia que se viene prolongando desde julio, el líder turco se ha visto facultado para gobernar por decreto. Más de 100.000 funcionarios han sido despedidos o suspendidos de su empleo y rivales políticos de Erdoğan han sido encarcelados. Además, se han clausurado organizaciones de la sociedad civil y medios de comunicación, ganándose Turquía el dudoso honor de ser el país con más periodistas entre rejas.

Pero las maniobras del Presidente turco no se han detenido aquí. Erdoğan consiguió promover una reforma constitucional que se someterá a referéndum a mediados de abril. De aprobarse, Turquía se transformaría en una República presidencialista y Erdoğan se haría con competencias que ni siquiera Mustafa Kemal Atatürk—el venerado “padre” del Estado turco—llegó a tener nunca. El Consejo de Europa ha alertado sobre la falta de garantías del referéndum, que tendrá lugar bajo el estado de emergencia. Una reforma de este calado dejaría más maltrecha todavía a la democracia turca y podría dar alas a Erdoğan en el desarrollo de su política exterior, que en los últimos tiempos ha sido de todo menos previsible.

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