ISIS, una crisis para Turquía

ESTAMBUL – El reciente regreso sanos y salvos de 46 rehenes turcos del Estado Islámico generó en Estados Unidos esperanzas de que finalmente Turquía se comprometa a unirse a la coalición internacional que ahora combate a la milicia islámica. Pero la voluntad turca de sumarse todavía debe superar dos escollos: la herencia de la desafortunada política de Ankara hacia Siria y una desconexión estratégica fundamental entre los gobiernos de Recep Tayyip Erdoğan y Barack Obama.

Desde el comienzo de la guerra civil siria, hace tres años, Turquía proveyó apoyo logístico y financiero a casi todos los elementos de la oposición siria, y les permitió usar el territorio turco para reagruparse tras sus operaciones militares al otro lado de la frontera. Comprometida con un cambio de régimen en Siria, Turquía hizo la vista gorda ante las tácticas brutales, las ideologías radicales y las ambiciones desmedidas de algunos de estos grupos; ahora se teme que esta condescendencia haya permitido al Estado Islámico infiltrarse en Turquía y preparar los medios para ejecutar actos terroristas en suelo turco, con lo que podría tomar represalias contra la participación de Ankara en la coalición liderada por Estados Unidos.

Pero la reticencia de Turquía a integrarse a la coalición esconde algo más. Entre Turquía y Estados Unidos hay un desacuerdo básico respecto de cómo interpretar y enfrentar la amenaza del Estado Islámico. En pocas palabras, para Estados Unidos el Estado Islámico es el problema más apremiante de Medio Oriente, mientras que para Turquía es un síntoma de patologías más profundas.

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