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上一次类似的情形发生在两次世界大战期间,即1914年到1945年。当时的世界“崩塌”被叶芝1919年的《基督再临》(The Second Coming)所捕获:“一切都四散了,再也保不住中心,世界上到处弥漫着一片混乱。”传统规则制度彻底被战争羞辱,合法性的真空被强大的煽动者和民粹主义独裁填补:“最好的人没人信,最坏的人充满激情。”斯宾格勒在1918年出版的《西方的衰落》(Decline of the West)中提出了相同的思想。


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