Foreign aid cuts Noorullah Shirzada/Getty Images

Los recortes de ayuda poco éticos de Trump

PRINCETON – Cuando a los norteamericanos se les pregunta qué porcentaje del gasto del gobierno estadounidense está destinado a la ayuda extranjera, la respuesta mediana es 25%. La respuesta correcta es 1%. No sorprende, entonces, que cuando el presidente Donald Trump justifica el recorte de la ayuda con el argumento de que otros países necesitan aumentarla porque no están pagando su parte equitativa, mucha gente le crea.

La verdad es que Estados Unidos es el que no está pagando su parte equitativa. Hace mucho tiempo, las Naciones Unidas instaron a los países ricos a aumentar su ayuda extranjera a 0,7% de su ingreso nacional bruto (que, por supuesto, es muy diferente del gasto del gobierno). En 2016, según cifras de la OCDE, los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Noruega, Luxemburgo, Suecia, Dinamarca, Turquía, el Reino Unido y Alemania alcanzaron ese nivel. Por el contrario, la ayuda oficial estadounidense representó solamente el 0,18% del ingreso nacional bruto, o 18 centavos por cada 100 dólares ganados.

En términos absolutos, Estados Unidos, de cualquier modo, gastó más en ayuda extranjera que cualquiera de los países que cumplieron con la meta. Pero Alemania, a pesar de tener una economía cuyo tamaño es menos de un cuarto del de Estados Unidos, estuvo poco menos de 9.000 millones de dólares por debajo solamente. Si se implementan los recortes propuestos por Trump, y Alemania mantiene su gasto en ayuda, Estados Unidos ya no sería el mayor donante, ni siquiera en términos absolutos.

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