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但以净值来看,国际贸易也扩大了整体经济规模,因为这意味着各国可以集中精力做任何自己最擅长的事情,在生产特定商品的生产力相对较高的地区生产这些商品。李嘉图(David Ricardo)的比较优势理论表明,各国的相对优势来自要素禀赋(factor endowments)的差异。经济学家保罗·克鲁格曼 (Paul Krugman)和埃尔哈南·埃尔曼 (Elhanan Helpman)在上世纪80年代指出,各国的相对优势也与它们在各专门化领域的投资有关。

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  1. skidelsky147_Christoph Soederpicture alliance via Getty Images_policechristmasmarketgermany Christoph Soeder/picture alliance via Getty Images

    The Terrorism Paradox

    Robert Skidelsky

    As the number of deaths from terrorism in Western Europe declines, public alarm about terrorist attacks grows. But citizens should stay calm and not give governments the tools they increasingly demand to win the “battle” against terrorism, crime, or any other technically avoidable misfortune that life throws up.