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特朗普的重商主义烂摊子

剑桥——当特朗普在2018年3月调侃“贸易战是好的,还很容易赢”时,许多人认为他的话基本上没什么害处,只不过是浮夸罢了。但真是这样吗?

各国参与国际贸易,是要通过出口产品来获得进口产品——消费者商品、生产中使用的中间产品和资本设备。换句话说,出口只是美国人为了获得他们想要或需要的东西而愿意放弃的货物。

但以净值来看,国际贸易也扩大了整体经济规模,因为这意味着各国可以集中精力做任何自己最擅长的事情,在生产特定商品的生产力相对较高的地区生产这些商品。李嘉图(David Ricardo)的比较优势理论表明,各国的相对优势来自要素禀赋(factor endowments)的差异。经济学家保罗·克鲁格曼 (Paul Krugman)和埃尔哈南·埃尔曼 (Elhanan Helpman)在上世纪80年代指出,各国的相对优势也与它们在各专门化领域的投资有关。

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    The End of the EU’s Brexit Bounce

    Mark Leonard

    After years of watching the United Kingdom muddle through a political crisis while enjoying an unprecedented level of unity among themselves, Europeans now must prepare for darker days. Negotiations over the future UK-EU relationship will inevitably divide Europeans and offer fodder to Euroskeptics.

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