Donald Trump speech Brendan Smialowski/Getty Images

Fiscalité : les républicains américains face au test de la réalité

NEW-YORK – Le premier grand objectif législatif de Donald Trump – abroger et remplacer l'Obamacare, la loi sur l'assurance maladie de 2010 - a déjà explosé du fait de la naïveté de Trump et des républicains du Congrès face à la complexité d'une telle réforme. Leur tentative de remplacer une loi, certes imparfaite mais populaire, par une pseudo-réforme qui priverait plus de 24 millions d'Américains de soins élémentaires ne pouvait qu'échouer, ou si elle avait été adoptée, conduire à leur perte les républicains lors des élections de mi-mandat de 2018.

Trump et les républicains du Congrès veulent maintenant diminuer les impôts, en commençant par l'impôt sur les sociétés avant de s'attaquer à l'impôt sur le revenu, comme si diminuer ce dernier allait être plus facile. Ce ne sera pas le cas, d'autant que la proposition initiale des républicains ajouterait plusieurs milliers de milliards au déficit budgétaire et que 99% de la baisse d'impôt bénéficierait aux 1% des revenus les plus élevés.

Quant à la proposition des républicains de la Chambre des représentants de réduire le taux de l'impôt sur les sociétés de 35% à 15% et de compenser cette perte de revenu par une taxe d'ajustement frontalier, elle est morte née. Même chez les républicains elle ne dispose pas d'un soutien suffisant pour être adoptée, et elle viole la réglementation de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC). Les baisses d'impôt que proposent les républicains se traduiraient par une perte de revenu de 2000 milliards de dollars pour l'Etat au cours de la prochaine décennie, une perte qui ne pourrait être comblée ni par des économies résultant de la réforme de l'assurance-maladie que voulait Trump, ni par les 1200 milliards de dollars qu'aurait pu générer la taxe d'ajustement frontalier.

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