Mother with her newborn baby Getty Images


华盛顿—2014年12月,萨洛姆·卡尔瓦(Salome Karwah)登上《时代》杂志《年度人物》特刊封面。卡尔瓦是一名助理护士,2014年,她不仅从家乡利比里亚的埃博拉疫情中生存下来,还帮助大批患者来到她的埃博拉小屋。卡尔瓦是一个悲剧英雄。一年前,她死于难产,每个月,难产都要夺走两倍于整个埃博拉疫情的生命。

纵观人类历史,分娩对妇女和新生儿都是一道鬼门关。在十九世纪,欧洲有百分之一的孕妇最后一尸两命。1847年,匈牙利产科医生伊格纳兹·泽梅尔魏斯(Ignaz Semmelweis)提出,紧靠医生消毒双手,就使他的诊所产妇死亡情况大幅下降。但他的发现基本被忽视,直到十年后路易·巴斯德(Louis Pasteur)普及微生物致病论。


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