e pluribus unum Scott J. Ferrell | getty images

从托尔斯泰到特朗普

伦敦——权力的本质和限度问题引发了列夫·托尔斯泰的关注。是什么使法国这个敌人如此强大,尤其是对俄国?这是托尔斯泰伟大小说《战争与和平》的核心问题——以至于有时托尔斯泰甚至认为他的书根本不是小说,而是对历史哲学的探索。

在权力限度问题上,托尔斯泰可能对英国二战时期元帅伯纳德·蒙哥马利后世所谓的战争第一定律颇费了些思量。“不要进军莫斯科。”严冬是一种就连曾帮俄国人成功击退拿破仑的德国人也无法逾越的更为可怕的现实力量(幸亏希特勒没有吸取这一教训)。

至于权力的本质,托尔斯泰既非经济历史学家亦非人口学家。1869年,《战争与和平》发表之际,在白令海峡的对岸屹立着美国,该国两年前曾以每英亩约两美分的价格从俄国人手里买下了阿拉斯加。

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