e pluribus unum Scott J. Ferrell | getty images

من تولستوي إلى ترامب

لندن ــ كان التعرف على طبيعة القوة وحدودها من أهم الأمور التي شغلت فِكر وخاطر ليو تولستوي. فما الذي جعل فرنسا ذلك العدو المهول المخيف، وخاصة لروسيا؟ كان هذا السؤال في صميم أعظم رواياته "الحرب والسلام" ــ حتى أن تولستوي كان يزعم أحياناً أن كتابه هذا لم يكن رواية على الإطلاق، بل كان بحثاً في فلسفة التاريخ.

عندما يتعلق الأمر بحدود القوة، فربما كان تولستوي ليفكر بشكل أعمق قليلاً في ما أسماه المارشال البريطاني برنارد لو مونتجمري إبان الحرب العالمية الثانية "القانون الأول للحرب". "لا تزحف على موسكو". كان الشتاء أحد عوامل الواقع الأشد هولاً حتى من الجنرالات الألمان الذين ساعدوا الروس في دفاعهم الناجح ضد نابليون (وهو الدرس الذي لم يستوعبه ولم يأبه له هتلر لحسن الحظ).

أما عن طبيعة القوة، فلم يكن تولستوي مؤرخاً اقتصادياً ولم يكن خبيراً في الدراسات السكانية. فعندما نُشِرت رواية "الحرب والسلام" في عام 1869، كانت تقف على الجانب الآخر من مضيق بيرنج  الولايات المتحدة، التي اشترت ألاسكا من روسيا قبل عامين من ذلك التاريخ في مقابل سنتين فقط للفدان.

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