Trump Mandel Ngan/Getty Images

Que peut espérer accomplir un président entravé ?

SÉOUL – Donald Trump a pris ses fonctions en promettant une multitude de changements radicaux sur le plan de la politique économique des États-Unis. À l’instar des précédents présidents américains, Trump s’est rapidement rendu compte que le système politique américain était précisément conçu pour empêcher tout changement rapide de grande ampleur, via la mise en place d’importants obstacles institutionnels incarnés notamment par le Congrès, les hauts fonctionnaires, les gouvernements des États, ou encore les tribunaux.

Intéressons-nous tout d’abord à la réforme de l’impôt sur le revenu. À première vue, cette démarche ne semble pas poser trop de difficultés, dans la mesure où le président et les leaders républicains du Congrès sont sur la même longueur d’onde. L’objectif de Trump consistant à empêcher désormais le gouvernement de se servir excessivement dans les poches des Américains, en faisant passer de 39,5 % à 33 % le taux marginal d’imposition sur le revenu ordinaire, s’inscrit en effet en pleine cohérence avec l’idéologie dominante des Républicains selon laquelle l’excès d’imposition pénalise la réussite et entrave l’innovation.

Selon voilà, pour être viables sur le plan politique, il est nécessaire que les réductions d’impôts significatives prévues pour les plus fortunés s’accompagnent d’un minimum d’allégements équivalents pour la classe moyenne. Or, une baisse généralisée des impôts viendrait creuser un trou béant dans le budget, et tourmenter les parlementaires les plus soucieux du déficit, qui sont encore aujourd’hui quelques-uns.

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