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沮丧的剖面

纽约—一些生命科学专家说,没有人可以从伤害或疾病中完全治愈,因为我们的细胞会永远保留哪怕是对身体完整性的最为轻微的攻击的痕迹和记忆。美国也是如此。

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总有一天,美国会将特朗普的那一页翻篇。但美国永远无法从其担任总统时的卑劣、颟顸和面对中国的全球野心的令人迷惑的消极态度对美国文化和国际地位所造成的伤口中完全恢复。特朗普只是一个症候,还是已经病入膏肓?

堕落和挫败还没有蔓延到民主党。我最近在纽约以及赴芝加哥大学政治研究所主持研讨会时发现了这一点。在伊朗裔美国人纳齐·莫伊尼安(Nazee Moinian)家中,齐聚一样的精英们达成了共识。莫伊尼安的公寓位于曼哈顿,模仿阿冈昆圆桌会(Algonquin Round Table)成员的高贵居所。特朗普不支持库尔德人脱离伊拉克独立,这不仅是一个到的错误,也是不可挽回的政治失策。他背叛了他的库尔德盟友。他增强了他的伊朗对手。

德国法律和政治学家卡尔·施密特(Carl Schmitt)也许会说,特朗普混淆了朋友和敌人,结果用对待后者的方式对待前者。令人难以理解的是,特朗普(再次)牺牲了美国的关键国家利益——这一次是放弃了美国唯一能够安全和严重依赖的(以色列之外的)中东地区力量。

我们如何面对这样的局面?凭借什么面对?真的没有办法对付拒绝讨论库尔德主权问题的邪恶邻居了吗?

一些民主党人放下了他们的民族自豪感,说最近被《时代》杂志冠以欧洲国王名号的法国的年轻总统马克龙更适合介入接手伊拉克和伊朗问题。老一辈民主党人毫无保留地表示要使用美国在冷战时期的实力。但在这里,他们软绵无力,手无寸铁,他们发出声音——也只能发出声音——反对阴险的四个小丑(伊朗、伊拉克、土耳其和叙利亚)阻挠库尔德独立。

我最近在第五大道上的以马内利会堂——这里堪称纽约最美轮美奂的犹太教堂,也是世界最大的犹太教堂之一——接受了《纽约时报书评》(New York Times Book Review)编辑帕梅拉·保罗(Pamela Paul)的采访。我们的对话再次转到了马克龙身上。我试图解释,他的招牌式用语——en même temps(与此同时)听上去就像是美国式实用主义的表达,但实际上堪称是其在思想上接近法国新教哲学家保罗·里克尔(Paul Ricœur)的最佳写照。“与此同时”绝意味着对模棱两可的选择的深思熟虑,而是一个在无法解决的可怕难题面前畏而却步的人的信条。这个难题就是饱受摧残的基督的肉身的双重性之谜——身体和精神,凡人和神祇。

但很快我们就来到了美国的反犹问题。一方面,8月份在弗吉尼亚州夏洛特维尔(Charlottesville)出现了大量本土论者、白人至上主义者和新联盟派(neo-confederates)拧断了不少黑人和犹太人的脖子。另一方面,在美国校园的左翼中间,很多人热衷于BDS(抵制、撤资和制裁)。BDS是一场针对以色列产品的全球性运动,但越来越难以区分它到底是不是一场针对显然属于犹太的产品和企业的半公开运动。

从这个角度讲,我们是生活在特朗普时代吗?在这个时代里,特朗普复兴了美国纳粹分子在20世纪30年代所高举的、鼓动偏隘的“美国优先”口号。有没有可能特朗普本人——尽管其官方基调是支持以色列——在私下里是反犹主义者?

真相是特朗普问题——这个人,乃至他的名字的谜团——在公共争论中占据了过多的空间。真相是我们在花时间困惑特朗普是不是疯了,或者困惑他是不是活像一个“油腻”又猥琐的哈姆雷特那样,在装疯卖傻迷惑对手时,我们落入了自恋的陷阱,在美国,这是虚无主义的新面孔。

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