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communism propoganda statue Gerhard Joren/LightRocket via Getty Images

意识形态陷阱

洛杉矶—特朗普总统已宣布美国南部边境的国家紧急状态——其实根本没什么紧急情况——这是为了获得他在2016年大选期间许下的建墙资金。但这也是决策中的理性与意识形态长期且危险的对立的又一写照。

基于证据的政策,不管有多少局限性,都会比意识形态驱动的政策有更大的成功机会,因为它们允许根据变化的条件和新数据进行调整。相反,产生自僵化的原则的政策可能完全与现实完全脱节。

历史上,因为选择意识形态、放弃现实而造成的灾难性后果不胜枚举。最著名的是希特勒不相信科学能满足日耳曼民族;德国需要征服广阔的生存空间,而这需要将瓦格纳的条顿支配神话转化为以帝国主宰为目标的政策。另一个基于意识形态的政权的领袖斯大林之所以能够击败纳粹,正是因为他能够摆脱绝对使命,而完全基于冰冷、理性的自利原则制定战争目标。

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