trump Ty Wright/Stringer

Fallos de representación en Estados Unidos y perspectivas para la democracia

NUEVA YORK – La asunción al cargo del presidente electo de los Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, ya está cerca, y tal vez el mejor modo de evaluar el próximo gobierno sea analizar los factores que en definitiva llevaron a su victoria. La elección de Trump no se dio en el vacío, y conforme tome forma su agenda, podremos comenzar a medir su impacto en la economía política, origen de su candidatura.

Trump ganó poniendo en duda la credibilidad del establishment político y académico, resaltando implacablemente las discrepancias entre la descripción que aquel hace de la economía política estadounidense y la realidad experimentada por muchos votantes. Como Bernie Sanders en la primaria de los demócratas, comenzó a atraer multitudes rompiendo filas con el aparato de su partido. Mientras Hillary Clinton y rivales republicanos como Jeb Bush y Marco Rubio trataban de construir coaliciones basadas en temas culturales y tradiciones partidarias, Trump y Sanders hicieron blanco en lo que más importaba para muchos votantes: una economía política en la que los funcionarios electos promuevan decididamente una prosperidad de amplio alcance que los incluya.

¿Cómo pudo habérseles escapado este tema central a los otros candidatos? Yo creo que no se les escapó, sino que sus intentos de atraer una base de votantes amplia chocaron contra un sistema que hace extremadamente difícil financiar una campaña política creíble sin inclinarse servilmente ante la franja más rica de la sociedad estadounidense. Ese sistema era una invitación a la rebelión, y tanto Trump como Sanders (mediante la autofinanciación uno y la colecta popular de fondos el otro) estaban en posición ideal para liderarla.

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