Trump supporter Mark Makela/Getty Images

¿Ha fallecido el internacionalismo liberal?

MEDFORD – Hace un siglo, el Presidente estadounidense Woodrow Wilson se debatía sobre si entrar en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Hacía solo un mes había ganado la reelección, en parte promoviendo una política de neutralidad que ahora se estaba preparando para abandonar, junto con el eslogan “Estados Unidos primero”. Hoy, por primera vez en más de 80 años, un presidente lo retoma para promover una posición de política exterior directamente en contra de lo que abrazaba la doctrina Wilson.

Solo en 1919, una vez finalizada la guerra, Wilson definió su visión exterior como “un internacionalismo liberal” que apoyara la seguridad colectiva y la promoción de los mercados libres entre las democracias, regulada por un sistema de instituciones multinacionales dependiente, en último término, de los Estados Unidos. Aunque el Senado estadounidense rechazó al principio la visión de Wilson, en particular su apoyo a la Liga de las Naciones, Franklin D. Roosevelt resucitó el internacionalismo liberal después de 1933. Ha contribuido a dar forma a las políticas exteriores de la mayoría de los presidentes desde entonces… hasta Trump.

El enfoque de “Estados Unidos primero” que Trump promueve tiene desdén por la OTAN, desprecio hacia la Unión Europea y ridiculiza el papel de liderazgo alemán en Europa. Rechaza además la apertura económica, con su retirada del acuerdo comercial de la Asociación Transpacífico y su llamado a renegociar el Acuerdo de Libre Comercio Norteamericano. También ha prometido salirse del acuerdo climático de París.

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