Trump supporter Mark Makela/Getty Images

自由国际主义已死?

梅德福德—一百年前的这个月,美国总统威尔逊正在犹豫要不要加入第一次世界大战。几个月前,威尔逊赢得连任——部分要归功于他所承诺的中立政策,而如今他准备抛弃这一承诺,同时也要抛弃“美国第一”的口号。而到了80多年后的今天,一位美国总统又拾起了这一口号,准备采取与威尔逊所信奉的信念截然相反的外交立场。

直到1919年一战结束后,威尔逊才制定了其“自由国际主义”的外交政策愿景:支持集体安全,促进民主国家间的开放市场,并由最终需要依靠美国的多边机构来管理整个体系。尽管美国参议院最初拒绝了威尔逊的方案,特别是其加入国联的主张,但到了1933年后,富兰克林·罗斯福修改了自由国际主义方案。罗斯福的方案奠定了此后大部分美国总统的外交政策基础——直到特朗普上台。

特朗普所鼓吹的“美国第一”方针包括抛弃北约、轻视欧盟以及对德国在欧洲的领导地位嗤之以鼻。它还拒绝经济开放,比如特朗普决定退出跨太平洋合作伙伴关系(TPP),并要求重新谈判北美自由贸易协定(NAFTA)。特朗普还表示要反悔巴黎气候协定。

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