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¿Será posible controlar a Trump?

NUEVA YORK – ¿Cómo afectó la elección de 2016 en Estados Unidos (que dio al Partido Republicano el control de la presidencia, el Senado y la Cámara de Representantes) al tan aclamado sistema de controles y contrapesos establecido por la constitución del país? En mi opinión, prácticamente lo anuló.

Los controles y contrapesos dependientes del poder judicial están en riesgo. Lo único que puede impedir a los republicanos cubrir la vacante de la Suprema Corte que no dejaron llenar a Barack Obama es que el Partido Demócrata apele al uso continuo del “filibusterismo legislativo” (maniobras dilatorias legales para impedir la votación de leyes). Y es posible que la edad de los miembros de la Suprema Corte abra pronto nuevas vacantes, que en la actualidad son ocupadas por jueces liberales y de centro. De modo que los republicanos cuentan con buenas chances de crear una mayoría conservadora entre los nueve miembros de la Suprema Corte que podría durar décadas, especialmente si en 2020 el partido vuelve a ganar la presidencia.

Esa mayoría puede debilitar los controles democráticos, por ejemplo los límites a la financiación de campañas, a los que el fallo en el caso Citizens United de 2010 asestó un golpe devastador. Por una mayoría de 5 a 4, la Corte decidió que las corporaciones son “asociaciones de individuos” y que, por tanto, limitar cuánto dinero pueden aportar a campañas políticas supone una violación de su derecho a la libertad de expresión conforme a la Primera Enmienda constitucional.

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