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¿Qué es mejor que un impuesto de ajuste fronterizo?

MÚNICH – Una de las propuestas de reforma más significativas del presidente de Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, está destinada al sistema tributario estadounidense. Su administración no sólo quiere reducir la carga impositiva general, sino también "reequilibrar" el sistema tributario para fomentar la producción doméstica y las exportaciones, posiblemente con un impuesto al flujo de caja basado en el destino que podemos llamar un impuesto de ajuste fronterizo (BAT por su sigla en inglés). Desafortunadamente, los riesgos de una reforma tan radical muy probablemente superarían cualquier recompensa.

Estados Unidos actualmente aplica un impuesto a las ganancias corporativas de un 35%. Es una tasa elevada según los estándares internacionales (aunque existen muchas deducciones y lagunas fiscales); de manera que los republicanos en el Congreso y algunos de los asesores de Trump ahora quieren básicamente reemplazar el impuesto a las ganancias corporativas con un impuesto al flujo de caja que se asemeje a un BAT.

Según este plan, los bienes y servicios importados serían gravados con una tasa del 20%, mientras que las exportaciones serían eliminadas de la base impositiva, y por lo tanto directamente no estarían gravadas. Si el dólar se mantiene estable, los costos de las importaciones en Estados Unidos aumentarían un 20% y los exportadores norteamericanos gozarían de un subsidio impositivo en relación con los productores domésticos.

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