Montmartre Paris Pierre Ogeron/Getty Images

¿Qué es el orden mundial liberal?

LONDRES – Después del annus horribilis de 2016, la mayoría de los observadores políticos coinciden en que el orden mundial liberal está en serios problemas. Pero, sus opiniones coincidentes terminan ahí. En la reciente Conferencia de Seguridad de Múnich, el debate sobre este tema entre líderes, como por ejemplo entre la canciller alemana Ángela Merkel, el vicepresidente estadounidense Mike Pence, el canciller chino Wang Yi y el canciller ruso Sergei Lavrov, demostró que existe una falta de consenso incluso sobre lo que es el orden liberal. Eso hace que sea difícil predecir lo que irá a suceder con el mismo.

Cuando Occidente, y especialmente Estados Unidos, dominaban el mundo, el orden liberal fue más o menos lo que ellos dicen que era. Otros países se quejaban y se explayaban presentando enfoques alternativos, pero básicamente siguieron las reglas definidas por Occidente.

Pero a medida que el poder mundial se ha desplazado desde Occidente hacia el “resto del mundo”, el orden mundial liberal se ha convertido en una idea cada vez más controvertida, ya que potencias emergentes como Rusia, China e India desafían cada vez más las perspectivas occidentales. Y, de hecho, la crítica de Rusia que realizó Merkel en Múnich por la invasión de Crimea y su apoyo al presidente sirio Bashar al-Assad chocó con las afirmaciones de Lavrov sobre que Occidente ignoró la norma de soberanía en el derecho internacional al invadir Irak y reconocer la independencia de Kosovo.

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