Information Technology Hardware

Para acabar con la división digital transatlántica

BRUSELAS – El pasado 8 de septiembre, después de cuatro años de laboriosas negociaciones, representantes de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea firmaron un acuerdo transatlántico para fortalecer la protección de datos. El llamado Acuerdo General dispone salvaguardias sobre las transferencias de datos para la observancia de la ley y aborda preocupaciones europeas de antiguo sobre el derecho a la intimidad. En particular, establece el derecho de los ciudadanos europeos a tener acceso a sus datos y solicitar la corrección de errores. Además, fija unos límites claros sobre el tiempo durante el cual se puede disponer de los datos y lo que se puede hacer con ellos.

El acuerdo, que debe ratificar el Parlamento Europeo antes de entrar en vigor, debe ser un motivo de celebración, pero los EE.UU. se apresuraron a inspirar dudas sobre su compromiso. El pasado 9 de septiembre, en el llamado caso Microsoft y justo un día después de que se alcanzara el acuerdo, el Departamento de Justicia de los EE.UU. sostuvo en un tribunal federal que se debía conceder a sus autoridades acceso directo a los datos de que dispongan las empresas privadas en el extranjero, incluida Europa. Independientemente de la resolución que dicte el tribunal, esa iniciativa es una peligrosa violación de la confianza. De hecho, es una demostración pública de la voluntad de los funcionarios americanos de esquivar las vías vigentes para la cooperación entre Europa y los EE.UU.

Acciones semejantes socavan la lenta renovación de la confianza transatlántica desde que las revelaciones de Edward Snowden sobre el alcance de la vigilancia americana de los gobiernos y los ciudadanos europeos. Para que el Gobierno de los EE.UU. se granjee la confianza y la cooperación de la UE, tendrá que aceptar que la seguridad nacional y el carácter privado de los datos no son mutuamente excluyentes. Una negativa continua a proceder conforme a los conductos legales acordados sentenciará el destino del Acuerdo General antes de su ratificación.

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