Margaret Scott

La farsa del libre comercio

NUEVA YORK – Aunque la Ronda de Doha para el Desarrollo de negociaciones comerciales mundiales de la Organización Mundial del Comercio no ha dado resultado alguno desde que se lanzó, hace doce años, se está preparando otra ronda de negociaciones, pero esta vez no tendrán carácter mundial y multilateral, sino que se negociarán dos enormes acuerdos regionales: uno transpacífico y otro transatlántico. ¿Hay más probabilidades de que las próximas negociaciones den resultado?

La Ronda de Doha fue torpedeada por la negativa de los Estados Unidos a eliminar las subvenciones a la agricultura, condición sine qua non de cualquier ronda de verdad para el desarrollo, en vista de que el 70 por ciento de la población de los países en desarrollo depende de la agricultura directa o indirectamente. La posición de los EE.UU. fue en verdad asombrosa, dado que la OMC ya se había pronunciado mediante una resolución sobre la ilegalidad de las subvenciones del algodón de los EE.UU., que benefician a menos de 25.000 cultivadores ricos. La respuesta de los Estados Unidos fue la de sobornar al Brasil, que había presentado la reclamación, para que abandonara el asunto y dejase en la estacada a millones de cultivadores pobres de algodón del África subsahariana y de la India, que padecen las consecuencias de unos precios muy bajos por la generosidad de los Estados Unidos para con sus cultivadores ricos.

En vista de esa historia reciente, ahora parece claro que las negociaciones para crear una zona de libre comercio entre los EE.UU. y Europa y otra entre los EE.UU. y gran parte de los países del Pacífico (exceptuada China) no van encaminadas a crear un verdadero sistema de libre comercio, sino que su objetivo es un régimen de comercio dirigido, es decir, para que esté al servicio de los intereses especiales que durante mucho tiempo han impuesto la política comercial en Occidente.

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