Margaret Scott

La farsa del libero scambio

NEW YORK – Da quando sono stati lanciati una decina di anni fa, i negoziati globali sul commercio dell’Organizzazione mondiale del commercio (Wto), noti come Doha Development Round, non hanno portato a nulla, e ciò malgrado è in corso un altro round negoziale. Questa volta però i negoziati non si terranno su una base globale e multilaterale; saranno infatti negoziati due grandi accordi regionali, uno transpacifico e l’altro transatlantico. Le nuove trattative avranno più successo?

Il Doha Round è stato sabotato dal rifiuto degli Stati Uniti di eliminare i sussidi agricoli – una condizione sine qua non per qualsiasi vero round sullo sviluppo, considerato che il 70% delle popolazioni nel mondo in via di sviluppo dipende dall’agricoltura, direttamente o indirettamente. La posizione degli Usa è stata davvero incredibile, tenuto conto che la Wto si era già pronunciata sui sussidi per il cotone in America – versati a ben 25.000 ricchi agricoltori – giudicandoli illegali. La risposta dell’America è stata di corrompere il Brasile, che aveva presentato una denuncia, e non di approfondire ulteriormente la questione, lasciando soli milioni di poveri agricoltori di cotone dell’Africa sub-Sahariana e dell’India, che patiscono i prezzi depressi a causa della “largesse” americana nei confronti degli agricoltori abbienti.

Considerata la storia recente, ora sembra chiaro che i negoziati volti a creare un’area di libero scambio tra Usa ed Europa e tra Usa e gran parte del Pacifico (eccetto la Cina) non stanno per realizzare un vero e proprio sistema di libero scambio. Al contrario, l’obiettivo è un regime commerciale gestito, teso cioè ad assecondare quegli interessi speciali che da tempo dominano la politica commerciale dell’Occidente.

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