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Le Partenariat transpacifique contre le libre-échange

NEW-YORK – Négociateurs et ministres des USA et de 11 autres pays riverains du Pacifique sont réunis à Atlanta pour finaliser les détails du nouveau Partenariat transpacifique (TPP), un traité de grande envergure. Mais il faut y regarder de plus près, car derrière les apparences, le plus grand accord régional de l'Histoire portant sur le commerce et l'investissement n'est pas ce qu'il parait.

On entend beaucoup parler de l'importance du TPP pour le "libre-échange". En fait il s'agit d'un accord destiné à gérer les relations commerciales et les investissements entre pays signataires, au bénéfice des lobbies d'affaires les plus puissants de chacun d'entre eux. Ne nous trompons pas : à considérer les questions de fond sur lesquelles les négociateurs continuent à se quereller, il est évident que le TPP ne concerne pas le "libre" échange.

La Nouvelle Zélande a menacé de se retirer de l'accord en raison de la manière dont le Canada et les USA organisent le commerce de la production laitière. L'Australie n'est pas satisfaite de la manière dont les USA et le Mexique organisent le commerce du sucre. Et les USA ne sont pas satisfaits de la manière dont le Japon organise celui du riz. Les secteurs correspondants disposent du soutien d'une partie non négligeable de l'électorat dans leurs pays respectifs. Tout cela ne représente que la partie émergée de l'iceberg et traduit le fait qu'en réalité le TPP s'oppose au libre échange.

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