Comment améliorer les négociations sur la mondialisation

Depuis l'échec des négociations de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) à Cancun, le sentiment qu'il est préférable de ne signer aucun accord plutôt qu'un mauvais accord se répand de plus en plus dans les pays en voie de développement. Mais que serait un bon accord ?

C'est la question que m'a posée récemment le Commonwealth, ainsi qu'à "l'Initiative for Policy Dialogue", un réseau international d'économistes engagés dans l'aide aux pays en voie de développement. Nous avons d'abord répondu que le cycle de négociations commerciales en cours, étant donné son évolution, ne mérite en aucune façon d'être appelé Cycle pour le développement.

Bien avant les émeutes qui ont marqué les négociations de l'OMC à Seattle en 1999, j'avais appelé à un cycle de négociations pour le développement afin de revenir sur l'iniquité des cycles précédents. Les pays avancés, dont les intérêts financiers et commerciaux sont prédominants, avaient fixé l'agenda de ces négociations. Que les pays en développement en bénéficient ou pas ne les préoccupait guère. Le dernier cycle de négociations, l'Uruguay Round, a aggravé la situation de la région la plus pauvre de la planète, l'Afrique sub-saharienne.

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