Paul Lachine

Signons l'accord de Doha !

GENEVE – En 2009 le commerce mondial s'est contracté à un rythme jamais atteint depuis la Grande dépression. Les premières victimes sont les pays qui sont les moins aptes à y faire face. Aussi, quand les ministres du commerce des 153 membres de l'OMC se réuniront à la fin du mois, se posera en priorité la question de savoir comment l'OMC et le système commercial au niveau mondial peuvent aider les pays les plus pauvres.

En raison de l'effondrement de la demande intérieure et de la production, mais aussi du financement, le volume des échanges a baissé de plus de 10% cette année. La reprise sera-t-elle au rendez-vous l'année prochaine ? Certains éléments montrent qu'il y a eu une reprise des échanges au cours de l'été, mais elle est hésitante et si fragile qu'un choc boursier ou sur le marché des devises pourrait saper à nouveau la confiance des consommateurs et des milieux d'affaires, réduisant encore le volume des échanges.

Ce sont les pays les plus pauvres qui pâtissent le plus d'un ralentissement des échanges. Ils ne peuvent se payer le luxe d'associer un plan de relance et un plan de sauvetage des secteurs en détresse pour amortir le choc engendré par la crise. Pour eux, le commerce représente la part du lion de l'activité économique et c'est incontestablement le meilleur moyen pour eux de sortir d'une crise qui les a durement frappés.

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