Торговля вместо помощи

Недавняя встреча G-8 в Шотландии, а также концерты и активность «звезд» привлекли всеобщее внимание к тому, какое количество международной помощи получают страны и народы Африки. Это можно понять с учетом хронической бедности этого континента, конфликтов, которым, кажется, нет конца, а также распространенности ВИЧ-СПИД и других инфекционных заболеваний. Если международная помощь правильно «нацелена» и условием ее получения является проведение реформ, она может оказать заметное положительное влияние.

Но помощь – вовсе не панацея. Фактом является то, что очень многие проблемы остаются, несмотря на десятки миллиардов долларов помощи и многие годы усилий, – грустное напоминание о том, что помощь может позволить правительствам вкладывать деньги в глупые мероприятия, от которых мало пользы, или же ее могут легко перекачать в свои карманы коррумпированные чиновники. Кроме того, получение помощи изначально не гарантировано, в результате африканцы остаются во власти внешних сил, недоступных их контролю.

Другая проблема (в дополнение к тому, что почти невозможно точно измерить объем потоков из всех источников) в случае акцента на помощи состоит в том, что политические усилия, направленные на ее увеличение, поглощают внимание, которое лучше было бы уделить более мощному инструменту экономического развития: торговле.

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