贸易协定能够阻止货币操纵吗?

华盛顿—不可否认,贸易和汇率是紧密相关的。但这是否意味着国际贸易协定应该包括约束影响货币价值的国家政策的条款?

一些经济学家显然认为是的。比如,西蒙·约翰逊(Simon Johnson)最近指出,应该用跨太平洋合作伙伴关系(Trans-Pacific Partnership)等大型地区协定来鼓励各国不要干预货币市场阻止汇率升值;弗雷德·伯格斯滕(Fred Bergsten)也持有类似观点。但美国财政部和美国贸易代表办公室仍认为,宏观经济问题应该与贸易谈判分开。

目前,最重要的国际机构——世贸组织和国际货币基金组织(IMF)——都无法通过自身有效应对可能的货币操纵。将影响汇率的宏观经济政策纳入贸易谈判要么要求世贸组织拥有分析和裁定相关国家政策的技术能力(和权力),要么要求IMF加入贸易条约相关的纠纷解决机制。

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