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factory worker welding Kike Calvo/UIG via Getty Images

贸易协定可能对劳工有利吗?

坎布里奇—劳工支持者以直报怨国际贸易协定受公司日程驱使,丝毫不关注工人的利益。世界贸易组织协定的序文提到了“充分就业”的目标,但劳动标准仍然被多边贸易机制远远排除在外。唯一的例外是1947年关贸总协定(世贸组织的前身)的一则条款,允许政府限制监狱劳工制作的进口商品。

相反,地区贸易组织向来重视劳动标准。这些协定与最惠市场准入和遵守核心劳工权利之间的联系日益明确。在最初的北美自由贸易协定(NAFTA,签署于1992年)中,劳动标准被收入附则。此后,美国贸易协定通常都会包括劳工一章。

支持者说,跨太平洋合作伙伴关系(TPP)原本将要求越南、马来西亚和文莱大幅改善劳工政策——越南还要支持独立工会。美国总统特朗普政府宣称 其与墨西哥的修订协定包含了所有贸易协定中最严格的劳工条款。

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