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A favore della TPP

STANFORD – Raggiunto l’accordo sulla Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) da parte dei 12 paesi dell’area del Pacifico, ora si intensificano i dibattiti sui costi e i benefici del commercio. I primi leader della campagna presidenziale degli Stati Uniti, sia il repubblicano Donald Trump che la democratica Hillary Clinton, hanno espresso la propria contrarietà alla TPP, anche se in veste di Segretario di Stato, la Clinton l’ha definita “il gold standard degli affari commerciali”.

Il giusto grado di apertura al commercio è un’annosa questione. Storicamente, i sistemi commerciali sono passati dall’essere piuttosto aperti all’essere fortemente limitati da regole, dazi o barriere non doganali, spinti dalle varie trasformazioni che hanno interessato il potere della liberalizzazione o forze protezionistiche a livello economico e politico. Ma anche nei sistemi chiusi, per quanto severe siano le sanzioni imposte sul commercio, il mercato nero è sempre in crescita, a causa dei “profitti del commercio” generati dalle forze economiche naturali.

Il desiderio di effettuare scambi commerciali nasce ogniqualvolta i vantaggi domestici derivanti dall’importazione di un bene (sia esso un prodotto finito o un componente) superano il prezzo pagato – ad esempio, se il bene importato non può essere prodotto a livello nazionale, oppure solamente a un costo più elevato. Come dimostrò due secoli fa l’economista britannico David Ricardo, potrebbe persino essere meglio che un paese importi dei beni che possano essere prodotti a basso costo, se così facendo si consente la produzione di altri beni che sono ancora più economici da produrre. Si innescano una serie di profitti e di economie di scala quando si produce per i mercati globali.

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