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TPP利弊辩

斯坦福—12个环太平洋国家完成了跨太平洋合作伙伴关系(TPP)谈判,随之而来的是日益激烈的贸易自由化利弊之辩。美国总统选战初期的领先者,不管是共和党的唐纳德·特朗普还是民主党的希拉里·克林顿,都表示反对TPP,尽管作为国务卿的克林顿称之为“贸易协议的金本位”。

贸易开放的合理程度不是一个新辩题。从历史上看,贸易体系既有极其开放的,也有受规则、关税和非关税壁垒严格限制的,其变迁受自由派或保护主义经济和政治力量的相对优势驱动。但即使在封闭系统中,不管针对贸易的惩罚多么严格,黑市总是能够发展起来,这是拜经济力量自发产生的“贸易收益”所赐。

只要进口商品(不管是制成品还是零部件)给国内带来的收益超过所支付的价格,就会产生贸易的渴望——比如进口商品无法在国内生产,或生产成本更高的情形。英国经济学家大卫·李嘉图两个世纪前就指出,即使是能够更廉价地生产产品的国家,进口产品也可能更好,如果进口能让其他产品的生产变得更廉价的话。贸易的其他好处包括品种的增加以及为全球市场生产所带来的规模经济。

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