Margaret Scott

Toxické testy

CAMBRIDGE – Vláda Spojených států dnes povoluje deseti z největších amerických bank splatit kapitál v objemu přibližně 70 miliard dolarů, který do nich loni na podzim napumpovala. Toto rozhodnutí přichází poté, co banky prošly takzvanými „zátěžovými zkouškami“ finanční životaschopnosti, které si vyžádalo americké ministerstvo financí, a poté, co se některým z nich podařilo získat dodatečný kapitál, jejž podle výsledků zkoušek potřebovaly.

Mnoho lidí si tento vývoj událostí vyložilo tak, že americkým bankám – které jsou klíčové pro americkou i světovou ekonomiku – už žádné potíže nehrozí. Takový závěr je však hluboce pomýlený.

Ve skutečnosti se americké zátěžové zkoušky nesnažily odhadnout ztráty bank z mnoha „toxických aktiv“, které tvoří srdce finanční krize. Americký model se nicméně ujímá. Ministři financí zemí skupiny G-8 se tento měsíc dohodli, že budou následovat USA a provedou zátěžové zkoušky i na svých bankách. Mají-li však být výsledky těchto testů spolehlivé, měly by se vyhnout zásadní slabině amerických zkoušek.

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