Směřování k zeleným nanotechnologiím

Nástup nanotechniky, inženýrské oblasti usilující o vytváření předmětů molekulu po molekule – ba atom po atomu –, vyvolal futuristické představy replikujících se „nanobotů“, již provádějí chirurgické zákroky nebo pohlcováním všeho, co je v dohledu, proměňují planetu ve spoustu „šedé břečky“.

Tyto dva scénáře se drží téže dějové zápletky: technologický pokrok, jako je rozvoj jaderné energie, geneticky modifikovaných organismů, informačních technologií a syntetické organické chemie, nejprve přináší naději na spásu, ale později hrozí zkázou, jakmile vyjdou najevo jeho důsledky, často ekologické. Jak se ukazuje, dokonce i desinfekce vody – nejvýznamnější jednotlivý technologický pokrok prodlužující lidský život – vytváří vedlejší produkty, jež jsou karcinogenní. Koloběh zásadního objevu, technologického rozvoje, odhalení nežádoucích důsledků a veřejného odporu se jeví jako nerozbitný.

Budou nanotechnologie jiné? Vedle rané euforie a bombastu, jež prezentaci nových technologií obvykle doprovázejí, jsou nanotechnologie předmětem předpovědí týkajících se možných ekologických rizik dosti dlouho před jejich masovou komercializací. Vznášení těchto otázek v době, kdy nanotechnika je ještě v plenkách, může vyústit v lepší a bezpečnější produkty a snížení dlouhodobé odpovědnosti průmyslu.

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