European Union flags.

迈向真正的经济和货币联盟?

法兰克福—自欧洲经济与货币联盟(EMU)成立以来,从未取得迈向政治联盟的进步——甚至连真正的尝试都没有。如今,欧洲危机让许多人相信,现有制度安排不可持续,即将发生改变。但理应如此吗?

如果你问欧盟委员会主席、欧元峰会主席、欧元集团主席、欧洲央行行长和欧洲议会主席,他们的答案是肯定的。事实上,在一份最新报告中,他们呼吁迈向一个“深度的、真正的、公平的”EMU;经济的、金融的、财政的联盟;以及一个“通过真正的民主问责、合法性和制度强化”为其他人提供基础的政治联盟。这份报告在学界、新闻加和其他公共官员中间激起了共鸣,其中包括(最引人关注的)法国总统奥朗德。

但是,在我看来,这份报告无异于建议成立一个欧洲财政部,它存在根本缺陷。该报告包括了诸多重要观察,但其基础假设——迈向其所有目标的措施应该起头并进,最后建立一个真正的政治联盟——大有问题。毕竟,建立一个政治联盟需要修订各国宪法,在大部分国家中还需要全民公决。但选民对于让渡更多主权给欧洲的前景并无多少热情。

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