Instituce pro život příliš přerostlé

NEW YORK – Právě zuří celosvětová polemika: jaké nové regulace jsou nutné, abychom obnovili důvěru ve finanční soustavu a zajistili, že za pár let nepropukne další krize? Mervyn King, guvernér britské centrální banky, se vyslovil pro omezení typů činností, do nichž se smějí zapojovat obří banky. Britský ministerský předseda Gordon Brown ovšem nesouhlasí: vždyť první bankou, která se zhroutila – a přišlo to na zhruba 50 miliard dolarů –, byla Northern Rock a ta se angažovala čistě v oblasti hypotečních úvěrů.

Z Brownova postřehu plyne, že takové restrikce nezaručí, že nedojde k další krizi; King ovšem právem žádá, aby se bankám, které jsou příliš velké, než aby zkrachovaly, přitáhly otěže. Za značnou část výdajů, jež ve Spojených státech, Velké Británii i jinde utrpěli daňoví poplatníci, jsou zodpovědné právě velké banky. Amerika jen letos nechala zbankrotovat 106 menších bank. Obří náklady představují obří banky.

Krize je důsledkem přinejmenším osmi různých, leč provázaných nezdarů:

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