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Die Toilettenrevolution

KOPENHAGEN – Politiker und Philantrophen sprechen oft über abstrakte, abgehobene Ideen wie Nachhaltigkeit und Transformation durch Dialog. Daher muss man Bill Gates und den indischen Premierminister Narenda Modi loben, weil sie sich einem viel mondäneren, aber nicht weniger wichtigen Thema widmen: Toiletten.

Die Bill-und-Melinda-Gates-Stiftung will die Toilettentechnik an sich ändern, so dass Toiletten nicht von einer großen Infrastruktur wie einer Kanalisation und Kläranlagen abhängig sind. 2011 hat die Gates-Stiftung den Challenge „Reinvent the Toilet” [Die Toilette neu erfinden] ins Leben gerufen, der Forschungsgelder für Wissenschaftler bereithält, die „auf der Grundlage von fundamentalen technischen Prozessen neue, innovative Ansätze für das sichere und nachhaltige Management von menschlichen Ausscheidungen entwickeln”. Die Hoffnung dabei ist, dass die Toiletten des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts menschliche Ausscheidungen in Energie, Dünger oder sogar Trinkwasser verwandeln.

Modi seinerseits hat erklärt, der Bau von Toiletten sei wichtiger als der von Tempeln. Er initiierte eine Kampagne, um die öffentliche Defäkation in Indien bis 2019 zu beenden, was mit dem 150. Geburtstag des Führers der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung, Mahatma Gandhi, zusammenfällt. Um das zu erreichen, baut die Modi-Regierung schnell einfache sanitäre Anlagen und installiert Millionen Toiletten im ganzen Land, einschließlich mindestens einer in jeder Schule.

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