Les leçons de la crise des missiles cubains

"Thirteen Days", un film sur la crise des missiles cubains de 1962 est sur le point de sortir sur les écrans de plusieurs pays. Il faut le voir, et pas seulement pour la mise en scène du passé, mais aussi parce qu'il permet d'appréhender sous un autre angle les événements actuels, en particulier la controverse qui entoure le projet américain de défense antimissile et les divers conflits régionaux, entre l'Inde et le Pakistan, Taïwan et la Chine, les deux Corées, qui pourraient conduire à l'utilisation de l'arme nucléaire.

Le 16 octobre 1962, le président Kennedy réunissait ses proches conseillers à la Maison Blanche. Des photos aériennes montraient que des bases de missiles nucléaires étaient en construction à Cuba. Les décisions qui allaient être prises lors des 13 journées suivantes pouvaient déboucher sur une guerre nucléaire. Le film montre ce qui s'est passé à la Maison Blanche durant ces journées. Des enregistrements sonores datant de la présidence de Kennedy ont servi à la réalisation du film.

Après le lancement du film aux USA, la "Kennedy School of Government" de l'université de Harvard a organisé un panel de discussion sur le film et sur la crise des missiles cubains. Y participaient Robert McNamara qui était le ministre à la Défense de Kennedy, Theodore Sorensen qui était son proche conseiller et qui écrivait ses discours, Ernest R. May, professeur d'histoire à Harvard et auteur d'un livre sur les enregistrements sonores de la présidence Kennedy, et Graham Allison, professeur de sciences politiques à Harvard, auteur il y a trente ans d'une étude, “Essence of Decision”, qui fait référence sur la crise des missiles. Peter A. Almond, le producteur du film était aussi présent. Si la dramatisation du film a été jugée excessive, les participants ont convenu qu'il traduisait exactement la situation et les pressions auxquelles était confronté le Président Kennedy.

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