El contra-iluminismo de hoy

No hace mucho tiempo, uno podría haber concluido que, al menos en Europa, ya no quedaban tabúes. Un proceso que había comenzado con el Iluminismo ahora había alcanzado el punto en el que “todo vale”. Particularmente en las artes, no había ningún límite aparente para mostrar lo que incluso una generación atrás habría sido considerado altamente ofensivo.

Hace dos generaciones, la mayoría de los países tenían censores que no sólo intentaban impedir que la gente más joven viera ciertas películas sino que, en efecto, prohibían libros. Desde los años 60, estas proscripciones perdieron fuerza hasta que, finalmente, se toleró la sexualidad explícita, la violencia, la blasfemia –aunque molesta para algunos- como parte del mundo ilustrado.

¿O acaso lo eran? ¿Realmente no hay límites? Afuera de Europa, la actitud de “todo vale” nunca se aceptó plenamente. Y también había límites en Europa. El historiador David Irving sigue detenido en Austria por el crimen de negar el Holocausto. Este, sin dudas, es un caso especial. La negación de una verdad bien documentada puede conducir a nuevos crímenes. ¿Pero la respuesta al antiguo interrogante ‘¿Qué es la verdad?’ fue siempre tan clara?

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