Gegenaufklärung heute

Vor nicht allzu langer Zeit hätte man zu dem Schluss kommen können, dass es zumindest in Europa keine Tabus mehr gibt. Ein Prozess, der mit der Aufklärung in Gang gekommen war, hatte den Punkt erreicht, an dem „alles geht“. Besonders in der Kunst gab es keine erkennbaren Grenzen, das zu zeigen, was vor nicht einmal einer Generation als höchst beleidigend angesehen worden wäre.

Vor zwei Generationen gab es in den meisten Ländern Zensoren, die nicht nur versuchten, jüngere Leute davon abzuhalten, gewisse Filme zu sehen, sondern tatsächlich Bücherverbote aussprachen. Seit den 60er Jahren haben solche Verbote nachgelassen, bis am Ende offene Sexualität, Gewalt und Gotteslästerung – obwohl sie manche Menschen verärgerten – als Teil der aufgeklärten Welt toleriert wurden.

Wurden sie das tatsächlich? Gibt es wirklich keine Grenzen? Außerhalb Europas wurde die Haltung „alles geht“ nie vollkommen akzeptiert. Und es gab auch in Europa Grenzen. Der Historiker David Irving befindet sich in Österreich immer noch in Haft für das Vergehen, den Holocaust geleugnet zu haben. Dies ist selbstverständlich ein besonderer Fall. Die Verleugnung einer gut dokumentierten Wahrheit kann zu neuen Verbrechen führen. Doch ist die Antwort auf die alte Frage „Was ist Wahrheit?“ immer so eindeutig?

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