今天的反启蒙潮流

不久以前,人们可能认为,至少在欧洲已经没有了任何禁忌。始于启蒙运动的进程如今已经发展到“破除任何禁忌”的程度。特别是在艺术领域,即使在表现被上一辈人视为极端无礼的事物时,也已经没有明显的限度。

在上上辈人所生活的年代,多数国家的审查制度不仅不允许年轻人观看某些电影,甚至禁止某些图书的出版。20世纪60年代后,这种侵犯人权的监管力度不断减弱,直到最后,尽管赤裸裸的色情、暴力和亵渎让部分民众大倒胃口¾但却作为启蒙世界的组成部分仍然被允许存在。

事实真是这样吗?是否真的不再有任何限度?在欧洲以外,“破除任何禁忌”的态度从未被人们彻底接受。在欧洲内部也同样存在着界限。历史学家戴维·欧文(David Irving)仍然因否认大屠杀的罪行被奥地利关押。这肯定是个特殊的案例。否认有史料记载的事实真相可能会导致新的犯罪。但对“真相是什么”这一老生常谈问题的答案是否总是那样清晰无误?

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