حركة التنوير المضاد

منذ مدة ليست بالبعيدة كان المرء قد يعتقد عن اقتناع، في أوروبا على الأقل، أن المحظورات والمحرّمات قد ولت بلا رجعة. والحقيقة أن العملية التي بدأت بعصر التنوير كانت قد بلغت نقطة أصبح عندها "كل شيء مباح". ويصدق هذا بصورة خاصة على الفنون، حيث لم تعد هناك حدود واضحة للدلالة حتى على ما كان أهل الجيل السابق قد ينظرون إليه باعتباره وقحاً أو صريحاً أكثر مما ينبغي.

منذ جيلين كانت أغلب بلدان العالم تعتمد على أجهزة رقابية لم تكتف بمحاولة منع الشباب من مشاهدة بعض الأفلام المعينة، بل وكانت أيضاً تحظر تداول بعض الكتب. ومنذ ستينيات القرن العشرين بدأت هذه الأشكال من الحظر والمنع تضعف، إلى أن أصبحت أمور مثل الجنس الصريح، والعنف، والتجديف موضع تسامح على اعتبار أنها أجزاء من العالم المستنير.

تُـرى أكان الأمر كذلك بالفعل؟ ألا توجد حدود حقاً؟ في الواقع لم يحظ أسلوب "كل شيء مباح" بالقبول الكامل خارج أوروبا. وحتى في أوروبا كانت هناك حدود. فما زال المؤرخ ديفيد إيرفينج سجيناً في النمسا بتهمة إنكار وقوع حادثة الهولوكوست (محرقة اليهود المزعومة في إبان الحرب العالمية الثانية). مما لا شك فيه أن هذه حالة خاصة. ذلك أن إنكار حقيقة مدعومة بالوثائق والمستندات بصورة طيبة قد يؤدي إلى ارتكاب جرائم جديدة. ولكن هل توجد إجابة واضحة إلى هذا الحد دوماً على السؤال القديم "ما هي الحقيقة؟".

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