Paul Lachine

南非可以获胜的艾滋病战役

爱尔福特——在对抗艾滋病毒/艾滋病的战斗中,南非多年来一直是各种禁忌的代名词。就在不久前,政府对威胁到国家根本命脉的疫情的应对之策还是平庸和愚蠢的。但20年来民间团体、媒体和开明政治家日渐加大的压力终于取得了成果。这种造成深刻社会经济痛苦、显著缩短寿命的疾病似乎在节节败退。

但新发布的联合国报告表明南非与艾滋病毒的斗争还远未结束。全世界就属这里的艾滋病问题最为严重,约有560万人(超过总人口的10%)现在感染了艾滋病毒。每年会出现约300,000个新增病例,因艾滋病相关原因丧命的达到270,000人。病毒携带者/艾滋病患者也容易感染其他疾病:估计70%的南非艾滋病患者同时感染肺结核,而半数病毒携带者在一生中会有感染肺结核的经历。更可怕的是,三分之一的孕妇(艾滋病毒的高度易感群体)被确诊为病毒感染,而病毒可以在分娩过程中传染给新生儿。

艾滋病来势汹汹及其传染速度让很多南非人意想不到。像发达国家一样,艾滋病毒感染最初集中在血友病患者、性活跃同性恋者以及静脉注射吸毒人员中。但20世纪90年代某种未知原因导致公众病毒感染率暴增。被病毒感染的南非民众数量(相当于丹麦全国人口)超过了相邻莫桑比克、莱索托、博茨瓦纳、纳米比亚、斯威士兰和津巴布韦的总和。

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