Nelehký úděl vítězů

NEW YORK – V nadcházejících měsících má proběhnout překvapivě vysoký počet voleb a politických změn. Jejich neúplný seznam zahrnuje Rusko, Čínu, Francii, Spojené státy, Egypt, Mexiko nebo Jižní Koreu.

Na první pohled mají uvedené země málo společného. Některé jsou zavedenými demokraciemi, jiné autoritářskými systémy a ještě jiné se nacházejí někde uprostřed. Navzdory všem rozdílům však jejich vlády – a jednotlivci stojící v jejich čele – musí řešit mnoho stejných problémů. Tři z nich jsou nejvýraznější.

Prvním problémem je skutečnost, že žádná země není zcela svým pánem. V dnešním světě se žádný stát netěší úplné autonomii či nezávislosti. V takové či onaké míře jsou všechny závislé na přístupu na zahraniční trhy, aby mohly prodat své zboží, zemědělské produkty, zdroje či služby – případně si je obstarat. Žádný stát nedokáže eliminovat hospodářskou soutěž s jinými státy o přístup na trhy třetích zemí. Mnoho států potřebuje příliv kapitálu, aby mohlo financovat investice či státní dluh. O cenách ropy a plynu rozhoduje převážně globální nabídka a poptávka. Hospodářská provázanost a s ní spojená zranitelnost jsou nevyhnutelnými fakty současného života.

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