Für einen Konsens des Dritten Weges

Vereinfachende Ideologien, rechte und linke gleichermaßen, hatten es im gerade geendeten Jahrhundert schwer. Der Sozialismus stand auf dem Prüfstein und wurde für fehlerhaft befunden. Das große kommunistische Experiment ist so gut wie vorbei, von ein paar Unverwüstlichen in Kuba und Nordkorea einmal abgesehen. Die Ideologie der Konservativen, wie sie der Washingtoner Konsens des neoliberalen Marktfundamentalismus repräsentiert, war auch nicht viel erfolgreicher, auch wenn hier die Misserfolge oft nicht eingestanden werden.

Das vergangene Jahrhundert hat gezeigt, dass Entwicklung zwar möglich ist, nicht aber unausweichlich. Die Länder, die dabei am erfolgreichsten waren - die ostasiatischen - haben eine Politik verfolgt, die sich wesentlich von der des Washingtoner Konsens unterschied. Vor der Finanzkrise im Jahr 1997 hat Ostasien nicht nur drei Jahrzehnte beispiellosen Wachstums, sondern auch eine beispiellose Verringerung der Armut erlebt.

Aus diesen Erfolgen erwuchs eine neue Sicht: ein “Dritter Weg” zwischen Sozialismus und Marktfundamentalismus. Ironischerweise entwickelte sich Amerika, lange eifriger Fürsprecher des Marktfundamentalismus, gemäß seines eigenen “Dritten Weges”. Die amerikanische Wirtschaft wuchs hinter Zollschranken. Von der ersten Telegrafenleitung zwischen Washington und Baltimore, die 1842 von der Bundesregierung errichtet wurde, bis zum modernen Internet; von landwirtschaftlichen Beratungszentren im 19.Jahrhundert über militärisch bezogene Forschung im 20. und 21.Jahrhundert, wurden neue Industrien durch eine stille, marktorientierte Wirtschaftspolitik gefördert.

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