Il faut reprendre le cycle de Doha

La suspension depuis juillet du cycle de Doha de l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) est profondément décevante. Si théoriquement le cycle n'est pas abandonné, en pratique les lobbies accrochés au statu quo ont remporté la manche.

Pourtant le statu quo est inacceptable. Dans le domaine de l'agriculture, il protège les fermiers riches du monde en privant les pauvres d'occasions de vendre, ce qui coûte en plus quelque 280 milliards de dollars aux contribuables et aux consommateurs. Dans le domaine de l'industrie, il dissuade les pays pauvres d'escalader la chaîne des valeurs ajoutées puisque les tarifs douaniers appliqués à leurs exportations augmentent avec le degré de transformation des produits.

Les barrières entre pays en développements sont aussi particulièrement hautes, ce qui empêche une croissance rapide du commerce entre eux. Dans le secteur des services, les barrières commerciales interdisent toute amélioration de la qualité et de l'efficacité, ralentissant la croissance d'un secteur qui pourrait énormément compter en termes de compétitivité et d'emplois.

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