Повторный визит на площадь Тяньаньмынь

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. Публикация засекреченных, записанных на аудиопленку воспоминаний свергнутого реформатора Коммунистической партии Китая Цзяо Цзияня, искавшего пути «устранения слабости экономической системы Китая в самом ее основании» и умершего под домашнем арестом, под который он был помещен за его усилия, вновь инициировала дебаты относительно непростого наследия протестных выступлений на Тяньаньмыньской площади, состоявшихся в 1989 году. В то время как Китай становится всё более значительной силой в мировой экономике, было бы неплохо вспомнить о том, что 20 лет назад в июне Китайская Народная Республика чуть было не распалась. Митинг протеста, организованный на площади Тяньаньмынь весной 1989 г., создал угрозу для существования коммунистического государства, провозглашённого на этом самом месте 40 лет назад Мао Цзэдуном.

Угроза пришла с двух сторон – изнутри высших эшелонов руководства Партии, в которой идеологические разногласия по поводу реформ разделили правящее Политбюро, и из городских масс, которые со студентами Пекинского университета в авангарде стояли на площади, выражая открытый, мирный протест против государственной власти.

Поразительно, но Партия смогла выйти из того кризиса, объединившись вокруг идеи «социалистической рыночной экономики» Дэна Сяопина, и вернула себе легитимность в глазах городского населения, воплотив данную идею в жизнь. Партия восстановила своё единство на основе стратегии глобально интегрированного роста, стимулируемого рынком, которого необходимо было достичь без вмешательства студенческой «богини» – демократии, – обеспечив, однако, городское население ощутимыми материальными благами.

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